Healthcare workers should know the different blood types and their compatibility. This kind of laboratory test is vital if the patient needs a blood transfusion. Blood typing is our blood’s classification in terms of inherited distinctive traits related to their antigens. They are located on the surface of red blood cells or also known as erythrocytes.
Nurses perform blood transfusion procedures after typing and crossmatching the blood donated by the donor for patient safety. If blood transfused to the patient has antigens that their bodies don’t have, it will form antibodies opposing it. Patients will experience mild to severe reactions during or post blood transfusion.
The Different Blood Types Are:
It is the most common type of blood used for blood transfusions. It is the only blood type group that doesn’t have the antigen. It is usually used in injury and trauma cases, emergencies, surgeries, and other settings where the patient’s blood type is unknown. So anyone with this type of blood can give to patients with all blood types.
- Donates to: O, A, B, AB
- Recipient of: O
- The UNIVERSAL DONOR
This type of blood is high on demand. In most cases, it is present in a large number of the population. If your blood is categorized as type A antigens, it has a protein called the rhesus ko(Rh) factor.
- Donates to: A and AB
- Recipient of: O and A
Type B is the result of the genes inherited from both parents to the child. Globally, 2%of the world’s population has type B blood. It has A-antibodies that only attack anti-A-containing blood cells.
- Donates to: B and AB
- Recipient of: O and B
AB blood type is also called a “universal recipient.” AB patients can take in red blood cells from all blood types. Both A and B have antigens, but it doesn’t consist of antibodies.
- Donates to: AB
- Recipient of: O, A, B, and AB
- The UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT
Blood is a fluid that circulates the vessels throughout the body. It carries oxygen and nutrients to your organs and helps get rid of waste in the process. It also forms a blood clot to prevent excessive blood loss.
Components of Blood:
- Red blood cells (RBCs): Each RBC has a lifespan of 4 months. They contain hemoglobin and carry oxygen and carbon dioxide.
- White blood cells (WBCs) have a significant role in the immune system. They fight infections and diseases. There are different types of WBCs which are neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.
- Platelets are cells that are responsible for blood clotting. Its principal function is to stop the bleeding so that the body won’t lose too much blood. It also has a life span of 7-10 days.
- Plasma constitutes 55% of the blood and is particularly made up of water, with proteins, ions, nutrients, and wastes mixed in. Plasma also helps clotting factors of the platelets.
What is RH Factor?
The Rhesus factor is a type of protein that can be found outside of blood cells. It also carries out oxygen all throughout the body. It is classifying a person’s blood type by the number of antigens and Rh factor on the surface of blood cells.
- Rh-positive: if your body has sufficient protein.
- Rh-negative: is not a disease, but it can affect your pregnancy. It also lacks protein.